Archaeologist who specialised in the Roman empire, focusing on ports plus commerce in Italy plus Spain
By the first century AD, Rome a new population of about a million individuals, far more than could be given from local sources, therefore was dependent on supplies through across its Mediterranean-wide disposition. However , its access to the ocean was limited as the Tiber mouth at Ostia can accommodate only small boats. Cargoes were thus delivered to the Bay of Southwest florida and taken overland or even by smaller boats in order to Rome.
The hungry population threatened politics instability, but it was not till the AD 40s that the Chief Claudius initiated the design of Portus on the coastline just north of Ostia, with huge concrete skin moles enclosing a 69-hectare (170-acre) anchorage with a lighthouse from its mouth.